Chemical Profile and Black Carbon of PM₂.₅ at Two Point Source Areas

Dhanya Lakshmi Arivalagan, (2015) Chemical Profile and Black Carbon of PM₂.₅ at Two Point Source Areas. Undergraduate project report, Faculty of Earth Sciences. (Submitted)

Abstract

Air pollution issues have become the major concern of this century realising its adverse effects on both the health of human and the climate. Currently, the chemical composition of aerosol, especially PMAir pollution issues have become the major concern of this century realising its adverse effects on both the health of human and the climate. Currently, the chemical composition of aerosol, especially PM₂∙₅ has been studied intensively in all parts of the world as the particles are of very fine size which makes it easily penetrate the human body, deep into the alveoli, and also carried further distances in the environment, causing climate changes. In this study, three main chemical components of PM₂∙₅, namely, trace metal, anions and BC have been studied. The ICP-MS, IC and EELS Reflectometer have been used to determine the concentrations of trace metals, anions and Black Carbon respectively. The aerosol sample was collected on a Quartz Fibre Filter using the LVAS, for a period of four months actively for 24 hours at two sampling locations, the roadside and the palm oil plantation at Kelantan, Malaysia. A few data analysis methods such as regression, correlation, enrichment factors and cluster analysis were performed in efforts to understand the inter-relatedness of the elements and their trends at both the sampling locations. The mass of PM₂∙₅ at Site A ranged from 1.39 1.1g/m³ to 54.86 µg/m³, whereas the mass of PM₂∙₅ at Site B ranged from 12.85 pg/m³ to 33.33 µg/m³. On the other hand, the concentration of BC at Site A ranged from 1.905 lag/m³ to 4.377 µg/m³, whereas the concentration of BC at Site B ranged from 0.808 lag/m³ to 4.729 lig/m³. It was found that both the mean mass of PM₂∙₅ and the mean concentration of BC were higher at Site A then Site B. Five anions were observed at Site A and six anions were observed at Site B. The average concentration of anions observed at Site A with decreasing amount is PO₄² > Cl- >SO₄²ˉ > NO₂-> F- . Whereas, the average concentration of anions observed at Site B with decreasing amount is SO₄²ˉ> PO₄² > Cl- > NO₂- > NO₃- > F-. Generally, the mean concentration of PO₄²ˉand SO₄²ˉ was found to be the highest at both sites and the concentration of F- was found to be the lowest at both sites. In addition, PO₄²was found to have moderately strong positive significant relationships with Cl- and PM₂∙₅ Mass at Site A. On the other hand, BC was found to have a moderately strong positive relationship with SO₄²ˉ and a weak positive relationship with Cr. At Site A, Na-Mn, Na-Zn, Na-As, Al-V, Vas, V-Fe, Cr-Ni, Mn-Pb, Cu-As, and Mg-Ca have positive significant relationships while Al-Fe possess a negative significant relationship. Whereas, at Site B, Al-V, Na-Cr, K-Al, Cu-K, Cu-Cr, and Zn-K have positive significant relationships while Cu-Na, Cu-V and Cu-Ni have negative significant relationships. However, there are significant weak positive relationships between BC and K and also between BC and Cr and also weak negative relationships between BC and Al, and also between BC and Ni at Site A. The mean concentration of trace metals at Site A in decreasing pattern is Ca > Na > Mg > Al > Fe > K > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Mn > V > As. On the other hand, the mean concentration of trace metals at Site B in decreasing pattern is Ca > Na > Mg > Fe > Al > K > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Mn > V > As. Generally the mean concentration of Ca and Na was found to be the highest at both sites, with V and As being the lowest at both sites. The elements Pb and Zn were highly enriched at both sites, while Al, K, V, Mn, Mg and Fe at both sides are of crustal origin. Finally four clusters were observed at Site has been studied intensively in all parts of the world as the particles are of very fine size which makes it easily penetrate the human body, deep into the alveoli, and also carried further distances in the environment, causing climate changes. In this study, three main chemical components of PM₂∙₅, namely, trace metal, anions and BC have been studied. The ICP-MS, IC and EELS Reflectometer have been used to determine the concentrations of trace metals, anions and Black Carbon respectively. The aerosol sample was collected on a Quartz Fibre Filter using the LVAS, for a period of four months actively for 24 hours at two sampling locations, the roadside and the palm oil plantation at Kelantan, Malaysia. A few data analysis methods such as regression, correlation, enrichment factors and cluster analysis were performed in efforts to understand the inter-relatedness of the elements and their trends at both the sampling locations. The mass of PM₂∙₅ at Site A ranged from 1.39 1.1g/m³ to 54.86 µg/m³, whereas the mass of PM₂∙₅ at Site B ranged from 12.85 pg/m³to 33.33 µg/m³. On the other hand, the concentration of BC at Site A ranged from 1.905 lag/m3 to 4.377 µg/m³, whereas the concentration of BC at Site B ranged from 0.808 lag/m³ to 4.729 lig/m³. It was found that both the mean mass of PM₂∙₅ and the mean concentration of BC were higher at Site A then Site B. Five anions were observed at Site A and six anions were observed at Site B. The average concentration of anions observed at Site A with decreasing amount is PO₄²ˉ > Cl- >SO₄²ˉ > NO₂- > F- . Whereas, the average concentration of anions observed at Site B with decreasing amount is SO₄²ˉ> PO₄²ˉ > Cl- > NO₂- > NO₃- > F-. Generally, the mean concentration of PO₄²ˉ and SO₄²ˉ was found to be the highest at both sites and the concentration of F- was found to be the lowest at both sites. In addition, PO₄²ˉ was found to have moderately strong positive significant relationships with Cl- and PM₂∙₅ Mass at Site A. On the other hand, BC was found to have a moderately strong positive relationship with SO₄²ˉ and a weak positive relationship with Cr. At Site A, Na-Mn, Na-Zn, Na-As, Al-V, Vas, V-Fe, Cr-Ni, Mn-Pb, Cu-As, and Mg-Ca have positive significant relationships while Al-Fe possess a negative significant relationship. Whereas, at Site B, Al-V, Na-Cr, K-Al, Cu-K, Cu-Cr, and Zn-K have positive significant relationships while Cu-Na, Cu-V and Cu-Ni have negative significant relationships. However, there are significant weak positive relationships between BC and K and also between BC and Cr and also weak negative relationships between BC and Al, and also between BC and Ni at Site A. The mean concentration of trace metals at Site A in decreasing pattern is Ca > Na > Mg > Al > Fe > K > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Mn > V > As. On the other hand, the mean concentration of trace metals at Site B in decreasing pattern is Ca > Na > Mg > Fe > Al > K > Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Mn > V > As. Generally the mean concentration of Ca and Na was found to be the highest at both sites, with V and As being the lowest at both sites. The elements Pb and Zn were highly enriched at both sites, while Al, K, V, Mn, Mg and Fe at both sides are of crustal origin. Finally four clusters were observed at Site A, whereas three cluster were observed at Site B, Originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources.

Item Type: Undergraduate Final Project Report
Faculty: Faculty of Earth Sciences
Call Number: SBN 2015 007
Supervisor: Dr Mohammed Abdus Salam
Programme: Geoscience
Deposited By: Mohd Suhairi Mohamad
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2016 08:45
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2017 01:17
URI: http://umkeprints.umk.edu.my/id/eprint/4585

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